Breathing easy in an oligoxic world: Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Phy. Mollusca, Cl. Cephalopoda) adaptations to the oxygen minimum zone
AbstractThis review explores the existing literature on the Vampire Squid from Hell, Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Phylum Mollusca, Class Cephalopoda, Order Vampyromorpha). They are largely unstudied deep water cephalopods found in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) throughout the world’s temperate and tropical oceans. Their unique morphology and genetic ambiguity has contributed to scientific debate regarding their phylogenetic relationships, to which there is still no definitive answer. Vampyroteuthis are so well adapted to life in the OMZ that foraging, locomotion and antipredator behaviours are entirely unique among cephalopods and perfectly well-adapted to the oxygen-starved environment. Despite a lack of direct research, inferences are made to determine the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on the vampire squid.
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